Other important eSafety Applications
The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors after an accident. When activated, the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the most appropriate emergency response service, normally a 112 Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). The voice call enables the vehicle occupants to communicate with the trained PSAP operator. At the same time, a minimum set of data is sent to the PSAP operator containing information about the incident — including time, precise location, the direction the vehicle was travelling and vehicle identification.
When fully deployed, an eCall system that provides accurate location data should lead to a higher efficiency of the rescue chain. This reduces the severity and consequences of accidents by providing faster medical care for road safety victims. The use of eCall has been estimated to decrease the number of severe road injuries and fatalities by 5-15%.
Extended environmental information (extended FCD)
Floating Car Data (FCD) uses systems on individual vehicles to gather data concerning the traffic situation on the entire road network. The in-vehicle equipment records the car location, speed and possibly other information such as acceleration or deceleration, and sends the recorded information anonymously to a central system or to other cars. Extended FCD brings in new types of data such as weather, visibility, and road surface friction. The data can be used as content for different applications and services, such as detection of traffic jams, slippery road sections, direct calculation of travel times and instantaneous traffic reports. Normally, about 3-5% of vehicles on a road section need to be equipped with the system for sufficiently reliable information.
Real-time Traffic and Travel Information (RTTI)
The goal of real-time traffic information is to assist drivers to use road networks more effectively by providing up-to-date traffic information, shown in the vehicle through the audio system, control display, digital road maps or last but not least via roadside Variable Message Signs. A service can, for instance, notify drivers of traffic incidents on their route, allowing them to change course — calculated by the system automatically — and possibly avoid delays.
Pre-trip or on-trip real-time traffic information — via in-vehicle receivers — about problems and hazards on the road network can also allow drivers to avoid the situation by changing their route or being better prepared. RTTI can have positive effects on overall congestion, transport network efficiency and driver comfort and safety.
Dynamic traffic management and Local danger warning
Dynamic traffic management systems, together with local danger warnings, are systems based on the interaction between the infrastructure and the vehicle. They provide the driver with different messages or warnings in order to increase the safety and flow of traffic in cases of disturbance caused by incidents, congestion or adverse weather. The systems are operated automatically, semi-automatically or manually from traffic control centres based on fixed monitoring systems or mobile sensors installed on vehicles acting as a sensor for the road network (Floating Car Data). Variable Message Signs (electronic traffic signs) are used to give the information to drivers, including regulatory, danger warning and informative messages.
Dynamic traffic management systems can harmonise the traffic flow and manage vehicle speeds according to the prevailing conditions, which has been shown to reduce fatal and injury-causing accidents. The impacts of the system depend on the quality of the traffic management system and the level of traffic volumes. In addition, they can improve the efficiency of the transport system, reduce congestion and increase driver comfort.
Local Danger Warnings improve driver awareness of incidents and other problems on the road section immediately ahead. Roadside local warning systems have been shown to reduce road accident related injuries and fatalities.
Source: eSafety Support